Why Did the Magi Bring Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh?

January 6th is the Feast of the Epiphany in the Episcopal Church. Often we read the account of the Magi offering the baby Jesus gold, frankincense, and myrrh. There is a long history of exploring the meaning of these gifts. The link (below) will give you one insight.

“Were the gifts of the magi meant to save Jesus from the pain of arthritis? It’s possible, according to researchers at Cardiff University in Wales who have been studying the medical uses of frankincense.”

Find out. Read more:  Why Did the Magi Bring Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh? – Biblical Archaeology Society

Adoration of the Kings | Art for Epiphany C

Adoration of the Kings
Adoration of the Kings
Apse mosaic, 1296, window level:3
Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome
(active c. 1270-1300)
Click image for more information.

Commentary by Hovak Najarian

Adoration of the Kings, Mosaic, 1296, Jacopo Torriti, (13th Century)

During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries there was an extraordinary growth in the veneration of Mary and many churches honored her name. In France, cathedrals were named Notre Dame (Holy Virgin) and in Rome alone, twenty-five churches were named Santa Maria. The largest of these became known as Santa Maria Maggiore (Saint Mary Major). This ancient church was expanded numerous times and during the late thirteenth century the entire choir area was rebuilt. Jacopo Torriti was commissioned to design the mosaic for its new apse. By this time, Mary had been exalted to the status of royalty and in art she was usually shown seated on a throne. The theme that Torriti chose for the apse mosaic was the coronation of the virgin and its centerpiece was a large medallion depicting Christ placing a crown on the head of Mary. Scenes from the life of Mary are shown below the medallion and among them is “Adoration of the Kings.”

In the Book of Matthew (Chapter 2) an account is given of wise men from the East who – being guided by a star – traveled to Bethlehem, and brought three gifts to the infant Jesus. It is believed these visitors were magi from Persia; men known to be scholars who studied science, mathematics, philosophy, and the stars. Matthew’s account does not indicate how many wise men journeyed to Bethlehem but because three gifts were brought, the assumption has been that there were three.

Torriti’s, “Adoration of the Kings,” depicts Mary with the infant Jesus seated on a throne. An inconspicuous star is to the left of the throne and its rays point directly to the head of Jesus. The three kings with their crowns and splendid robes are raising their gifts as Jesus reaches out like a curious child. The kings, kneeling one behind the other in similar positions, create a sense of visual progression toward the infant; variations are introduced through differences in their crowns, the color of their beards, and the color of their robes. In the large pictorial space above them is an angel. Its active shape and large spreading wings fill the space and balance visually the stable and compact shapes of the kings below. All aspects – gestures, gazes, leanings – of the figures in this mosaic lead a viewer to the infant Jesus. The kings look directly at the child as they kneel and present their gifts while the angel looks at Jesus, extends an arm, and gestures, “Behold!”


Artists before the Renaissance had difficulties when they tried to create a convincing likeness of a child. The face of Torriti’s infant Jesus has the facial features of his mother and a receding hairline. His proportions are like that of an adult’s body reduced in size.

A mosaic is an image created by cementing small pieces (called tesserae) of various hard colored materials – usually of uniform size – to a base such as a wall, floor or ceiling. Materials such as marble, glazed clay and glass have been used traditionally for tesserae and they continue to be used today.

Hovak Najarian © 2013

More importantly, what does it mean to you?

Youths dressed as the three Kings greet Pope Benedict XVI as celebrates the solemnity of Mary the Mother of God mass and the 45th World Day of Peace on Jan. 1, 2012 at the Vatican basilica.

Epiphany. Well, what does it mean to you? What’s the big deal about Epiphany? Decide for yourself.

Here is the “official” description of Epiphany shared by our Episcopal Church in its book Holy Women, Holy Men:

The name “Epiphany” is derived from a Greek word meaning “manifestation” or “appearing.” Anglican Prayer Books interpret the word with an alternative title, “The Manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles.” The last phrase, of course, is a reference to the story of the Wise Men from the East.

A Christian observance on January 6 is found as early as the end of the second century in Egypt. The feast combined commemorations of the visit of the Magi, led by the star of Bethlehem; the Baptism of Jesus in the waters of the River Jordan; and Jesus’ first recorded miracle, the changing of water into wine at the marriage of Cana of Galilee—all thought of as manifestations of the incarnate Lord.

The Epiphany is still the primary Feast of the Incarnation in Eastern Churches, and the three-fold emphasis is still prominent. In the West, however, including Anglican Churches, the story of the Wise Men has tended to overshadow the other two events. Modern lectionary reform, reflected in the 1979 Prayer Book, has recovered the primitive trilogy, by setting the event of the Baptism as the theme of the First Sunday after the Epiphany in all three years, and by providing the story of the Miracle at Cana as the Gospel for the Second Sunday after the Epiphany in Year C.  Page 158

Here is another write up that we can discuss in the Sunday Morning Forum. As you will see, I/we might dispute some of what is written here:

Epiphany — which is variously known as Theophany, Three Kings Day and El Dia de los Tres Reyes — is a Christian celebration of the revelation of the birth of Jesus to the wider world. This is embodied most in the story of three wise men visiting a newborn Jesus with gifts, found in the Gospel of Matthew 2:1-12. Read the article and view more images of Epiphany.

I encourage you to view the pictures that accompany the article (above) about Epiphany. There is no disputing that the Feast is observed and celebrated these thousand of years later in ways to capture the imagination and the heart.